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Critical Assets of the Twenty-First Century Corporation

 

Shifting Perspectives: The revolutionary changes underway in the World from 2000-2025 make Human Capital and Authentic Leadership Critical Assets of the Twenty-First Century Corporation. Succession planning is a vital element in generating, building, and sustaining these assets.

An experiment was conducted in 2002 at the Tucson Conference entitled, “Toward a Science of Consciousness”, and sponsored by the Center for Consciousness Studies at The University of Arizona, USA.

In this experiment, the observers were asked to watch very closely two teams of participants throw a ball back and forth. The observers were told to focus on and count the number of times the team in white shirts threw and caught the ball. While they were doing this, a man dressed up in a gorilla costume walked directly through the space across which the two teams were throwing the ball, directly through the line of sight. What percentage of the observers did not see the gorilla?

There are four choices. Did ten percent, twentyfive percent, fifty percent or seventy-five percent of the observers not see the gorilla? In this instance, fifty percent of the people watching did not see the gorilla; and this was at a conference during which all were focused on consciousness!

The reason that I’m recounting this story is because it’s an analogy that describes the fundamental challenge that exists in recognizing and in realizing the opportunity inherent in a corporation undertaking succession planning: developing the company’s human capital. While everyone is focused on the daily business and tasks at hand, the importance of succession planning is often over looked or little understood.

And yet implementing succession planning is a vital element in building and sustaining human capital and authentic leadership. The development of the human beings working in a twenty-first century corporation in Asia is absolutely critical for the corporation’s survival. This is true for many reasons as we are about to explore and included in these reasons is that both succession planning and a sound management competency framework build trust in people and in the organization.

This is the Gorilla. For the purpose of the analogy, Gorillas are something that we’ve missed seeing in the past that we now see and in which seeing lies an opportunity. Seeing the Gorilla is the beginning of the process.

The Second point is that most humans upon seeing a gorilla have a ‘knee jerk’ reaction that it must be a problem. It can’t possibly be good. It’s a gorilla! Let’s avoid it. It’s similar to an idea held by many senior executives that the human resource department is for handling human resource problems rather than for managing one of the company’s most critical assets.

Shifting perspectives on this point is essential for a corporation’s continued success. To do so all in the corporation need to change the prescription in the lenses of their own glasses because the opportunity can only be grasped by changing the perspective.

The third point is that everyone in the company faces the exact same challenge in changing the assumptions they hold about the company, others in the company and indeed their own roles in the company. The fundamental challenge that we face collectively is shifting the current mindset in our organizations.

To underscore this point, neuroscience research shows that our minds discard the majority of the sensory stimuli we receive. That our eyes visually take in an image, deconstruct it and then put that image back together in our own mind’s eye not as it was. That is why we see only about thirty percent of what is actually around us and that is what is happening in the gorilla experiment.

As neuroscience began to bring forward scientific proof, business started thinking about the impact and implications this new information would have on business. This is how the development of the potential of each human being has become a mainstream concern of business. The bottom line is that our understanding of ourselves and our perspectives impact our performance in business.

As an example of how critical this ability to shift mind sets is to business, consider that in 1977, Ken Olson, the founder of Digital Equipment Corporation actually said, quote “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home!” The company, Digital Equipment Corporation was an early American pioneer in the computer business which was later sold to Compaq and then taken over by Hewlett Packard.

Turning now to succession planning? What is it exactly? What role does a management competency framework play in this planning? How have human resources become human capital? Why is that important? What developments have occurred that are driving companies and executives to change their perspectives on this subject of human resources?

In summary, to answer these questions we will review some of the major revolutionary changes underway in the world that not only impact the way corporations and executives view themselves but the need to deliver new solutions and innovations, since the old solutions are no longer solving today’s problems. These revolutionary changes are driving the need to prepare executives and leaders to address the new challenges. These emerging complex challenges demand that executives and leaders develop a wider understanding of the context of the problems and the impact of corporate decisions on society as a whole. At the same time, executives must deliver un-sacrificed profitability. Through this exploration, we will see how and why the development of human capital and authentic leadership are so vital.

Before we go any further, why do senior managers want and need to know more about succession planning and the global issues that are driving it? Because understanding will enable them to take advantage of the opportunity being presented to them and to thrive in the new environment now unfolding. John Seely Brown said, quote, “in the old world, managers make products. In the new world, managers make sense of things.”

This is the beginning of a new era in Asia, in the relationship between the corporation, its leaders and managers and between the managers and all the other employees. The twenty-first century corporations that embrace succession planning are essentially asking their executives for collaboration, while offering to provide them with the executive development programs needed to support their growth and that collaboration. In so doing, those corporations are acknowledging their respect for the human capital that the executives represent and are recognizing the vital asset these executives are to the corporations.

On the part of the corporate leadership, it signals a new commitment, an investment in executives’ growth and capability. It also signals a new level of trust. Trust because the corporations are investing in the development of human beings. The human beings’ development is in their possession and for which the corporation will then rely on them. By launching succession planning, an Asian corporation is recognizing the challenge and seizing the opportunity. Indeed this signals that the corporation’s leadership has seen the Gorilla that has been roaming around the office.

With regard to Information referenced and end noted in this paper, it is a combination of research from sources including World Health Organization, various United Nations Agencies, The Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, DC the Milken Institute in Los Angeles and various United Kingdom research institutions, leading physicists including David Bohm, Danah Zohar, Einstein leading scholars from Wharton to MIT, leading authors including Peter Senge, a senior lecturer at MIT Sloan School of management and author of the acclaimed book, The Fifth Discipline.

Turning now directly to the subject, what is succession planning and a management competency framework?

Succession planning starts with the identification of management capabilities that are core to an individual’s ability to manage oneself, one’s work, others at work and those relationships, the results of the work and the thinking competencies required to do all of the aforementioned.(1)

This produces a framework in which particularly capable individuals can be brought forward. The process of succession planning and management not only puts in place a system in which key roles are identified but also the additional core competencies necessary for specific positions, the criteria on which candidates will be chosen and the procedures for the choice.(2) Assessment tools are engaged to genuinely better understand the capabilities of executives and identify what education, training and coaching is needed for the executives to develop strengths in areas of previous weakness. Through these means, the capabilities of executives are better aligned with the position they hold. Executives can experience more job satisfaction as well.

This framework encourages long term development and mentoring. Successors all along the lines of management can be identified. The development can be individualized/ tailored to a specific executive’s needs. The process enables early recognition when expectations of development are not being met as well as when an executive’s development exceeds expectations.

This Framework makes the decision making process more transparent. It allows for different points of view on any individual executive to be voiced and considered. Through ‘360 degree’ assessments a more balanced and accurate view of any individual can be obtained. Because feed back is sought at all levels, from superiors, peers and subordinates. It is not singularly the immediate boss’ opinion that counts. This supports compensation and promotion through meritocracy and balances the influence of politics. Thereby, it genuinely provides incentives for the best talent to emerge. It drives efficiency into learning and development so that executives don’t spend time in programs which they do not need. It encourages executives to use their best talents to emerge as leaders.

The process of identifying successors, assessing capability gaps, implementing individual training and development plans, reassessing results, delivers a path of growth for executives and creates trust in the process by mangers and all employees, trust in the managers by the corporate leaders and trust in the corporate leaders by managers.

We have all seen time and time again that brilliant sales person promoted and promoted until he or she is promoted to a position for which his or her skills - that enabled the promotion - are not applicable in any way in the new job. Often the person promoted is also miserable even if he or she does want the promotion. Without the training he/she is unlikely to be effective. Resentment emerges all around.

The succession planning and competency framework are designed to avoid these disruptive occurrences.
 

In the Oxford English dictionary capital is defined as, quote “that which confers wealth, profit, advantage or power.” Essentially human resources have become Human Capital because the corporation and their shareholders recognize the value of human resources and the profit, advantage and wealth those resources afford.

Recognizing this, corporations invest in human resources beyond industry specific skills training and into the development of managers and leaders. What historically were called ‘soft skills’ in a command and control environment are today recognized as the essential skills. These soft skills enable a collaborative environment through communication in which leaders, managers, indeed all employees are more likely to excel. Research has definitively shown that collaborative management results in dramatically increased productivity,(3)

Bottom line, growing human beings is a good investment and good business because they are directly tied together. Let’s address authentic leadership, what is meant by authentic? Our collective understanding of leadership is moving from a “conventional one with an emphasis on positional power and conspicuous accomplishment”(4) to an understanding of authenticity in leadership -according to the leading thinkers on this subject(5)

An authentic leader is one who is deeply grounded in self knowledge, has a deep commitment to serve, has a concept of the servant as a leader, is vision & value led,(6) has compassion & humility,(7) is mindful of the world, world minded, understands the whole system and the company’s role in it, and brings wisdom to decision making.(8) An Authentic leader deeply understands the concepts that interconnect methods, business, fields of disciplines, nations and communities, and synthesizes complex information across these channels of knowledge.(9) An authentic leader engages in abstract thought and resources intuition, fields independence, questions why and what for, engages in collaborative development and communication, and appreciates the relevance of all the stakeholders.(10) 

I’d like to note here that these leadership values have been at the core of Asian philosophy for thousands of year. Master Nan Huai Chin, regarded by many as the most important living Chan(Zen) Buddhist and Taoist master, and the eminent Confucian scholar stated in an interview(11) with C. Otto Scharmer that “the core of Confucian theory of leadership formation rests on the idea that, quote ‘if you want to be a leader, you have to be a real human being. You must recognize the true meaning of life before you can become a great leader. You must understand your self first.’”(12) This same understanding actually goes even further back to the time of Lao Tze, the first recognized philosopher on earth, who not only said that “if you want to make and investment for life, plant a human being” but also said “the way to do is to be.”(13) Please note that this doesn’t mean you don’t have to do anything, actions are and will always be key.

Turning now to what is driving this change to develop managers and leaders. There are three main drivers behind the development of Human Capital and Authentic Leadership in the twentyfirst century corporation.

Driver number one is rooted in a convergence in thought that has emerged across multiple disciplines: physics, neurological science, philosophy, religion. This is driving the shift in perspectives.

Driver number two and three are broken down into seven sectors.

Driver number two is rooted in the three major changes identified by CSIS in a study entitled “Seven Revolutions”.(14) These are the following, which are driving management competency development:

 
1. Population growth and demographics; 
2.The development and dissemination of information and of knowledge; 
3. Technological innovation and its distribution

Driver number three is rooted in the subsequent four revolutionary changes underway identified in the same study. These are following, which are driving authentic leadership development:


4. The nature and mode of conflict;
5. The challenge to governance;
6. The development and dissemination of economic integration;
7. Resource management and the environment.
(15)

 

Turning now to explore these:

Driver number one is the convergence of thought across the disciplines of physics, neurological-science and philosophy. These disciplines are no longer in conflict on some major issues.

Consider this, since the sixteen hundreds and until the last approximately twenty-three years; Newtonian scientific theory ruled thought. Newtonian thinking holds a mechanical view of the universe; machines are simple, limited and predictable.(16) From which the universe was / is viewed as machinedetermined, fixed(17) and fragmented.

Starting in 1972, leading physicists began conducting experiments, confirming again and again that(18) quote “the world in effect is fundamentally inseparable” it is a whole system, everything’s connected.(19) As your five year old child will tell you, the knee bone is connected to the thigh bone; the thigh bone is connected to the hip bone and on and on.

There is “a collective and individual reevaluation of the principles with which we make sense of our world(20)” that has been underway gradually. It is gradually permeating all aspects of philosophy, education, business, society, and government. This is a basic recognition that the world’s problems are everyone’s problems. To quote Joseph Jaworski, co-founder of the Global Leadership Initiative, “relationship is the organizing principle of the universe.”(21)

These developments mark the beginning of an era in which science and physics are confirming what religion and age old Asian spiritual disciplines had long espoused.

The point here is that the twenty-first century corporation looks at itself differently. It recognizes the importance of all of its parts. That it is a whole system and that management competency and leadership are as important as the products they deliver. It is important to recognize that Succession Planning is not a passing management trend but rather based on a fundamental shift in the perception of the value of the contribution that human beings make to business. This is an important development.

Let’s move on to explore the second and third drivers of Human Capital and Authentic Leadership as essential assets. I will be referencing predominately two research studies conducted by The Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, DC undertaken in 2000 and 2001 entitled “Seven Revolutions” and “Eight Futures.” (22) which identified seven major changes dramatically changing the world going out to the year 2025. They took trends tracked over the last 20 years and assuming the same set of circumstances, growth rates, cycles, etc., they projected them forward; a task undertaken by computers. We know that it is probably impossible for projections to be realized 100%. Nevertheless, that having been said, now four years into the reality, to date the projections appear to be very much ‘on target’. These studies have been widely acclaimed.

Turning back to explore driver number two, this is rooted in three revolutionary changes underway globally in 
1. Population growth and demographics; 
2. The development and dissemination of information and of knowledge;
3. Technological innovation and diffusion.

 

These three directly drive the urgency for corporations to develop executive competencies to manage themselves, others and business results as well as the development of thinking competencies that include analytical, conceptual, strategic and innovative thinking and wisdom. Let’s consider how this is happening.

Revolution number one: Population growth, urbanization, and generation gap.

How many people are there in the world?

There are different estimates from CSIS(23), and the United Nations, considering both we are expected to increase by two to four billion more people and this will happen somewhere between 2020- 2100(24); it will level off before declining.(25)

In the year 2020, it will be the first time in history that there will be more elderly than young people. The current working age population will drop by fifty percent.(26) The number of people over sixty years of age is expected to double by 2050.(27)

Consider this, while the population is growing those capable of working or of working age will drop dramatically. Sourcing knowledge workers is a big challenge. So it is important for corporations to keep their knowledge workers longer.

It is striking that the population is aging, despite the AIDS epidemic(28) and starvation in developing countries and the fact that eighty-two percent of worlds smokers live in developing countries.(29)

Let’s look more closely at revolution number two, the revolution in the development and dissemination of information and of knowledge.

  • Economists traditionally identified 3 factors of production: land, labor and capital. In the information economy that’s developing all of these will be overshadowed by a new core factor: knowledge.(30)

  • Knowledge distribution is increasingly facilitated by cyber universities. Today there are well over 55,000 distance learning courses in 130 countries. And MIT in 2003 began placing all its courses on the web free of charge.(31)

  • Because knowledge will become increasingly perishable due to a shorter meaningful life, constant lifelong education will be essential for those who want to succeed and survive.(32) This gap is projected to create greater social and financial inequities.(33)

The irony here is that although learning will be more accessible the eligible pool of knowledge workers is shrinking.

In summary, this is not altruism. There is a regional and global talent crunch, the economic impact of which is staggering. This is based on the dramatic changes in the demographics of the population and the revolution taking place in the information economy, which is shortening the life of meaningful knowledge. Because knowledge is changing so quickly, information is increasingly more perishable. Executives’ Continuous education is a must. Alternatively executives’ knowledge will become outdated and irrelevant and the corporation’s success will not sustain.

Consider this, if a twenty-first century corporation doesn’t educate and develop their executives, the corporation will lose its most capable and talented executives to corporations that are committed to doing so.

Revolution number three, technological innovation and distribution in the areas of computing, genomics and nanotechnology.

Computers, IT and communication technology will be ubiquitous not only in our homes but also in our bodies. The remarkable speeds of computing and advances in molecular and quantum computing resulting in practical applications will continue.(34)

Question: How many play stations does one need in order to assemble a super computer device capable of a half a trillion operations per second?(35) Seventy.

Question: How much faster are our computers today than in the1970? 100,000!(36)

Consider this, in 2003, seventy percent of the world’s population had not yet heard a dial tone! (37And today, there is a seventy-five percent penetration rate of cell phones in Tanzania!(38)

Genetic diagnosis and genetic therapy will exist. Genomics is changing medicine so drastically that if you have children less than ten years of age, the introductions of genomic medicines could help many of them live until one hundred and twenty years of age.(39)

Nanotechnology is making everything lighter and smaller, while the digital divide widens. How does this daunting news impact management capabilities and leadership?

“At the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, outside of Vienna, Austria, many years ago, a senior officer from the United Nations closed his presentation by saying, ‘I’ve dealt with many different problems around the world, and I’ve concluded that there’s only one real problem: over the past hundred years, the power that technology has given us has grown beyond anyone’s wildest imagination, but our wisdom has not. If the gap between our power and our wisdom is not redressed soon, I don’t have much hope for our prospects.’”(40)

Bottom line: while technology is pervasively growing in capability, using wisdom in making business decisions is disappearing. We are in urgent need of growing our wisdom quotient.

There is a growing awareness among the leading corporations in the world of the serious need to develop executives so that they can make wise, smart and profitable decisions that do not drive short term profitability at the expense of sustained survival.

Turning finally to driver number three, which is driving Authentic Leadership development and rooted in the remaining four major changes underway ( as identified by CSIS):
4. The nature and mode of conflict 
5. The challenge to governance; 
6. The development and dissemination of economic integration; 
7. Resource management and the environment.

 

The world is facing problems of greater and a greater complexity. Business will have to operate in very challenging environments. Here’s an overview of them.

Revolution number four is in the nature and mode of conflict(41):

Over the next twenty years, the lines between lawlessness, crime, disorder, terrorism and war will become increasingly blurred; the management of this is and will continue to challenging governments(42) across the world.

One third of the world’s population was at war in 2003.(43)

One quarter of those conflicts in recent years have involved struggles over vital natural resources.(44The Middle East has five percent of the world’s population and they live on one percent of world’s water.(45) The population has the highest growth rate in world, followed only by its neighbor in sub - Saharan Africa.(46)

There were an estimated three hundred thousand children soldiers fighting in armed conflicts in 2003.(47) There are an estimated twenty-seven million people in slavery. Slavery is defined as persons who are the objects of forced labor or human trafficking and child labor.(48)

Question: In the year 2003, by which means did more people die: armed conflicts or suicide? (49) Suicide.

Revolution number five is taking place in governance. The challenge is adapting social organizations to the “new challenges the world faces.” (50)

The capacity of organizations will be severely tested. Governments will fall behind in responding to the needs of constituents and addressing broader social goals.(51) They will seek new solutions from new sources - business will need to deliver.

An international opinion survey conducted in 2002 for the World Economic Forum, entitled the “Voice of the People,” reflected the views of thirty six thousand citizens in forty seven countries across six continents.(52)(53)According to the survey groups, their sample is statistically representative of 1.4 billion citizens.(54)

The key question asked was: how much do you trust seventeen kinds of broad-based institutions to “operate in the best interest of society?”

Question: What do you think was on top of the most trusted list? Armed forces were on the top of the trust list.

This was followed by a distant second, nongovernment organizations (NGO), which was followed by education systems, and the fourth was The United Nations.

The institutions that were the most distrusted were the key democratic political institutions: “parliament/congress” across the world. The challenge can really be seen in the responses to the question:

“Is your country governed by the will of the people?” Forty-two countries of forty-six said “no.”

Question: Can you guess which four said yes? Malaysia, Dominican Republic, Israel, Luxembourg.

Question: After governments which institutions were the second & third least trusted? Global corporations and national corporations respectively were least trusted.(55)

Of the one hundred largest economic entities globally, only fifty-eight percent are sovereign nations. Forty-two of the top one hundred economic entities in the world are corporations.

Revolution number six is taking place in the development and dissemination of economic integration.(56) This essentially means the globalization of cross border goods and services.(57) Here we see the benefits of integration pitted against global inequities. The size of the global economy in 2002 was fortyseven trillion dollars; this is four times the size it was in 1975. While the UN development program maintains that the developing nations have achieved in thirty years the progress that it took one hundred years for developed nations to achieve.(58) At the same time, the income gaps between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’ are expected to widen even further in the next twenty years.

In 2002 how many people were living on less than two U.S. Dollars a day? Two billion eight hundred million people.(59)

In 2002, there were still two billion people in Asia alone without electricity. This juxtaposed against the reality that cell phone penetration in Tanzania is seventy-five percent reflects an enormous anomaly and the opportunity that technology provides.

Due to East Asia’s economic growth, the number of people living on less than two U.S. Dollars per day has been falling from more than one billion in 1990 to a projected three hundred and forty million in 2015. Over fifty percent of the current consumer class lives in developing countries. Developed markets(60) are a shrinking part of the world market. Revolution number seven, resource management breaks out into three sectors:

Number One: FOOD (61)

Not just the production of enough food but also its distribution and method by which it will be produced. To feed eight billion people by 2025 the World would have to double food production.

The question is “can food production keep up with the population growth?” Of course, the issue is not just the production but also the distribution. One view is that public attitudes will need to shift to accept new advances in biotechnology. Those holding this view believe that these advances would make a difference. There are counter views that point out the inherent potential risks in bio-tech foods.(62) We see this debate raging in front of us between the US and Europe.

Keep in mind that half of the world’s population lives in food deficient countries.(63)

Number Two: WATER (64)

In 2025, the most serious challenge is projected to be the scarcity of water. Populations are growing in the geographic areas of the scarcity and the knock-on effects of poor sanitation, public health, irrigation are profound on geopolitical stability.(65) Isn’t it amazing that populations appear be able to keep increasing in numbers in the face of these developments. Fresh water makes up 2.5 percent of the earth’s water. How many people lack access to safe drinking water in 2002? One billion eight hundred million people. Deserts are expanding and the soil is eroding.

The third sector of the seventh revolutionary change is Energy’s Impact on the Environment and environmental stewardship; the United States of America utilizes eighty percent of the car fuel in the world. China is the world’s second largest polluter after the USA. Carbon emissions doubled from 1994 to 2002. This is projected to dramatically increase going forward. We already have a preview of this in China’s guzzling of supplies.

China’s acid rain poisons one quarter of the Chinese land mass and ruins crops in Korea and Japan.(66) The toxic dust from Chinese sandstorms travels to the U.S. National Parks obscuring visibility and raising the mercury levels in fish.(67) This again exacerbates the food problem.

Thus the call last June from the corporate community by some of the world’s major corporation for global sovereign carbon emission trading limits to be put in place.

Ten percent of the worlds’ “Hot spots” are in reserves. These are places predominately located in the belt around the equator that are responsible for generating eighty percent of the world’s bio diversity. Environmentalists inform that within the next eight years, it is essential for sustainability to place twenty percent of the “hot spot” environments in nature reserves.(68)

If you put ‘A4’ paper end to end, how many times could you go to the moon and back? Seven(69)

In summary, as you can see, these changes in the world are presenting business with challenges of enormous complexity. Executives need to build their capabilities to handle these challenges and bring wisdom to the decisions they make in business and in their personal lives. Services will be dealing with challenging delivery environments and the role of business’ impact on the environment, society and nature will be center stage and under scrutiny more than ever before. All of this will influence how business is executed and sacrificing profitability is not an option. Asian Corporations indeed all corporations that want to succeed need to plant and grow wise human beings and develop capable managers. They need authentic leaders to come forward, since it is widely acknowledged among leaders that these problems will not be able to be solved by linear thinking alone.

The capacity to ‘digest’ and synthesize information across diverse channels, to engage abstract thought, intuition and wisdom, indeed consciousness of the whole world and whole system are required.

Indeed it is apparent from this information that the business environment and market realities are both demanding more diverse capability from executives.

The leading twenty-first century corporations are preparing to respond to questions such as the following?

  1. What is the corporation’s strategic vision and strategy to address how these revolutions are impacting and will impact its market?

  2. How is the corporation leveraging the revolutionary changes to create a competitive edge?

  3. Is the corporations’ key talent familiar with the specific impact of these revolutions and emotionally and psychologically prepared to engage the challenges with wisdom?

While I recognize that some difficult information is presented herein, I see no other way to communicate the importance of the matter, to deepen the understanding of the whole system in which all are working and to clarify the importance of launching succession planning in Asian corporations. I’d like to encourage all to engage with vigor the opportunity being presented.

In conclusion, many multi-national corporations are responding to the new realities presented by scientific discoveries and the other dramatic revolutionary changes in the world, which are making business more complicated and changing the way corporations think.

To meet these complex challenges leading corporations recognize that they must (in order to survive & succeed) develop and promote to leadership positions the most capable executives So that complex problems can be solved and smart business decisions made, enabling them to compete profitably.

The leading twenty-first century corporations’ Management Competency Framework

  • respects the value of human resources as capital

  • identifies executives’ strengths and development need

 

The leading twenty-first century corporations’ succession planning process

  • assesses objectively executives capability

  • delivers development programs • prepares executives to solve complicated problems

  • assures that the best talent is promoted and that genuine leaders guide the company successfully into the future.

 

Leading twenty-first century corporations are responding to the new realities. These corporations are taking important steps toward building learning corporations; ‘Learning Organizations’(70) are those in which the leaders and those around them continuously collaborate and learn, collectively deepening their understanding of the challenges and delivering solutions that serve business, its profitability while respecting the whole system.

Notes

  1. Effective Succession Planning: Ensuring Leadership Continuity and Building Talent from Within,. by William J. Rothwell, (Amacom, USA 2001)

  2. Ibid.

  3. Center for Creative Leadership, Greensboro, N.C., USA

  4. Synchronicity: the inner path of Leadership. Joseph Jaworski, (Berrett- Koehler Publishers, Inc 1996,1998), page 182

  5. Presence. by Peter Senge, Joseph jawoski, Otto Scharmer, Mary Sue Flowers ( Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2004)

  6. Spiritual Capitalism., by Danah Zohar and Ian Marshall, pages 83-108, (Berrett- Koehler Publishers, Inc 2004)

  7. Spiritual Capitalism., by Danah Zohar and Ian Marshall, pages 83-108, (Berrett- Koehler Publishers, Inc 2004)

  8. Synchronicity: the inner path of Leadership. Joseph Jaworski, (Berrett- Koehler Publishers, Inc 1996,1998), p.96

  9. Ibid

  10. Spiritual Capitalism., by Danah Zohar and Ian Marshall, pages 83-108, (Berrett- Koehler Publishers, Inc 2004)

  11. C. Otto Sharmer, a thought leader on this subject, senior lecturer at the MIT Sloan School of management and cofounder of the Society for organizational Learning. .Presence., by Peter Senge, C. Otto Scharmer, Joseph Jaworski, Mary Sue Flowers (Nicholas Braeley Publishing UK 2005) p.180

  12. Presence., by Peter Senge, C. Otto Scharmer, Joseph Jaworski, Mary Sue Flowers (Nicholas Braeley Publishing UK 2005) p.180

  13. Lao Tze

  14. The Seven Revolutions. research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington , DC. 2001

  15. Ibid

  16. Spiritual Capitalism, by Danah Zohar and Ian Marshall, (Berrett- Koehler Publishers, Inc 2004)

  17. Synchronicity: the inner path of Leadership. joseph jaworski, page 183 (Berrett- Koehler Publishers, Inc. 1996, 1998)

  18. SYNCHONICITY, by Joseph Jaworski In the 1964 a Swiss Physicist, J.S. Bell performed and experiment which wasconfirmed over the following 8 years multiple times by other physicists at the University of Paris and Berkeley theproved in the field physics that .the world in effect is fundamentally inseparable. It is a whole system. As your five yearold child will tell you, the hip bone is connected to thigh bone to the knee bone etc. BY the 1980s, Dr. David Bohm,professor of theoretical physics at London.s Birkbeck College published a book entitled wholeness and the implicate order.

  19. Ibid.

  20. From Mechanistic to Social Systemic Thinking,. Talk presented at "Systems Thinking in Action" conference - November 1993, Pegasus Publishing - http://www.pegasuscom.com/ Dr. Russell Ackoff, Anheuser-Busch Professor Emeritus of Management Science at the Wharton School,

  21. Synchonicity, Joseph Jaworski p.184 (Berrett-Koehler Publishers 1996), a leader of Royal Dutch Shell Group.s renowned team of scenario planners, board member of MIT.s center for organizational learning,

  22. The Seven Revolutions. and .The Seven futures. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC

  23. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  24. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  25. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC. Announced at the Annual global conference 2004, The Milken Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

  26. Ibid.

  27. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  28. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  29. Worldwatch Institute, Vital Signs 2003.

  30. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC

  31. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts; www.mit.edu.

  32. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC

  33. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC

  34. Ibid.

  35. Ibid.

  36. Ibid.

  37. 50 Facts That Should Change the World, by Jessica Williams (Icon Books Ltd., 2004)

  38. The 86 Percent Solution by Vijay Mahajan and Kamini Banga with Robert Gunther (Wharton School Publishing, U.S.A.2005) Vijay Majahan is marketing professor, John P. Harbin Centennial Chair in Business, McCombs School of Business, The University of Austin, Texas.

  39. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC

  40. Presence, Peter Senge, C. Otto Sharmer, Joseph Jaworski, Mary Sue Flowers,( Nicholas Braeley Publishing2004)

  41. Ibid

  42. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  43. Project Ploughshares Armed Conflicts Report 2003,www.ploughshares.ca/CONTENT/ACR/ACR00/ACR03-Preface.html.

  44. Worldwatch Institute, Vital Signs 2003.

  45. Water Hots Spots. BC News Outline, news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/world/03/world_forum/water/html/default.stm.

  46. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington , DC.

  47. Human Rights Watch, .Facts about chi ld soldiers., www.hrw.org/campaigns/crp/facts.htm. Coalition to Stop he Use of Child soldiers, Child soldiers global Report, May 2001.

  48. Figures from www.antislavery.org and www.iabolish.org.

  49. Center for Disease Control (CDC), .Suicide in The United States., www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets.suifacts.htm.

  50. Ibid.

  51. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  52. Study conducted by Gallup International and Environics

  53. Ibid

  54. Ibid.

  55. Seven Revolutions FYI., issue 2; November 25, 2002.

  56. Ibid.

  57. Ibid.

  58. Ibid.

  59. Ibid.

  60. Vijay Majahan presentation to Wharton Fellows, India 2005. Vijay Majahan is marketing professor, John P. Harbin Centennial Chair in Business, McCombs School of Business, The University of Austin, Texas.

  61. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  62. 50 Facts That Should Change the World, by Jessica Williams (Icon Books Ltd., 2004).

  63. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  64. The Seven Revolutions. Research studies by Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

  65. They Export Pollution Too., by Hannah Beech, Time Magazine Special Report , June 27, 2005

  66. Ibid.

  67. The Nature Conservancy, USA, www.nature.org

  68. Ibid

  69. The Fifth Discipline. by Peter Senge (Bantan Doubleday Dell 1990, 1994)

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