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Case Studies

Innovation Capital® - The Key to Every Corporation’s Undiscovered Treasures

What is Innovation Capital?

Innovation Capital® is the capability to foresee, adapt, profitably shape and implement strategies in periods of rapid change.

As the unprecedented pace of change in today's market environment accelerates, the importance of and urgency to build Innovation Capital in corporations operating in Asia increases exponentially.

This paper explains the meaning and concept of Innovation Capital®(1), provides an overview of the impact of SYNOVATIONS'® coaching on its development and shares some experiences in working with companies on the harnessing of Innovation Capital.

I use the word 'Innovation' as it specifically relates to 'assets that add to the long term net worth of a corporation'(2) and an 'accumulated possession calculated to bring in income'(3). Innovation, one of only two revenue generators on the balance sheet(4), is critical to the continued success of any corporation. The 'capital' aspect in this term signifies corporate talent's collective capability to generate and implement the innovation.

For Asia to grasp the opportunities presented at this stage in history, Innovation Capital needs to be developed. How can the Innovation Capital in corporations operating in Asia be harnessed? It is the opinion of this writer that the undertakings of executive coaching programs that address one-on-one as well as team coaching are essential elements.

The case studies that follow illustrate two different approaches to the development of Innovation Capital the first explores a one-on-one coaching process spread over a year and the second a team coaching process structured in a two day offsite.

By way of background, my coaching work is philosophically rooted in twenty years of foundational studies in Carl G. Jung's work, Founder of the School of Analytic Psychology, Asian philosophies and the literary works of Joseph Campbell; decade's of business experience at strategic levels and continuous business education, which includes the Society of Fellows, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2003-present. 

Case Study 1: One-on-one Coaching

One-on-One Coaching Leadership Development and Innovation Capital Case Study(5):


In the first case study, a hybrid coaching methodology structured on the discrete and recursive practice elements of the Society of Organizational Learning's (SoL) coaching model (Figure 1) and philosophy(6) along with a range of Solution-Focused(7) tools and practices were engaged. The SoL coaching model focuses on an individual client as well as the systemic context in which that person functions. SoL coaches (including myself) have found that consideration of the interdependencies of the context and the context's impact on the client, as well as the client's impact on the whole system, is often vital for achieving the coaching objective(8).

This director (MD) of a Fortune One Hundred Multi National Corporation (MNC) was being prepared for a global senior leadership role. A year long coaching engagement composed of nine two hour sessions along with substantial interim communication and support were provided by the MNC. Although MD delivered stellar financial results, it was often at the disadvantage of other executives. He reverted to harsh command and control tactics to meet deliverables and did not know how to achieve success through others. He was a new member of the executive committee and it appeared that he was less than comfortable around other senior leadership. Beyond other preparations for the strategic level of the organization, such as strengthening capabilities to engage strategic issues and their context, the aforementioned weaknesses were to be turned into strengths. A 360 degree assessment, recently undertaken, reflected these issues. A previously taken Meyers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) psychometric instrument provided other pertinent background information.

MD clarified each of his goals for development during the coaching contract period and positioned these objectives within his own life purposes, identifying his priorities. The benchmarks of success were envisioned and specifically defined. One example was that MD would have completed twelve meaningful, authentic conversations based on appreciative enquiry with peers and subordinates, during which he would have found himself at ease. He would know he was at ease because his sense of humor would have emerged. The goals were then set and aligned within the context of the corporation's leadership model.

Recognizing the significance, MD made a commitment to undertake a disciplined individually tailored reading program. Since we are all locked into our own perceptions of reality, assuring the input of new thought provoking, catalytic information on a consistent basis through out the coaching period is fundamental to achieving the aforesaid desired results. Executives move up the operational ladder on the basis of specific skill sets, none of which are relevant to the responsibilities undertaken at the strategic level of business. Thereby two distinct channels of reading provided support for this objective.


The first channel focused on personal development. As Master Nan Huai Chin, regarded by many as the most important living Chan (Zen) Buddhist and Taoist master, and an eminent Confucian scholar has stated(10) "the core of Confucian theory of leadership formation rests on the idea that, quote 'if you want to be a leader, you have to be a real human being. You must recognize the true meaning of life before you can become a great leader. You must understand your self first.'"(11)


The second channel focused on books that contained cutting edge thought leadership in economics, business and whole systems thinking and other foci from the major research institutes and centers for strategic and international studies. Before proposing these books it was imperative to have an understanding of MD's 'universe of business thought' and identify areas to expand. Questions to expose that which formulated MD's world were explored.

Thus MD commenced a demanding reading agenda and coaching process designed to challenge the mental models that underlay his understanding of business modeling, shift his perspective on his colleagues and humanity to include a wider appreciation of the world and thus the relationship between himself, his team and bosses. The work was not merely at the level of behavior modification but rather that of the deeper philosophic motivation. This was to manifest itself in multiple ways including a genuine sense of compassion and the ability to acknowledge the accomplishments of others before moving on.

Trust was established as we worked on MD's recognition of the gap between his concept of self, the actual feedback and his potential as recognized by the company and himself. Although repeatedly and quickly promoted through the ranks, MD had not recognized nor acknowledged to himself that the company was seriously vested in grooming him for the most senior roles. We reviewed the 360 assessment and after questioning some of it. MD sought new direct feed back from others he respected and in whom he had confidence.

A very structured 'exercise' program on practical communication and collaboration skills was undertaken, while at the same time being mindful to strike a balance between engaging strengths and weaknesses. Between sessions, MD tried and tested techniques. MD studied the various communications styles preferred by different personality types and practiced applying the different communication sequences through which different personality types like to receive their information. MD, in one-on-one meetings with each direct report, not only explored developing more personable relationships but also talked through the big picture coaching the report to connect the dots between developments. Accountability for this process (achievements and disappointments) was kept front of mind. Facilitating MD's identification of and connecting with resources internal and external with which to overcome difficulties was vital to this process. The obvious pool of choices was continuously expanded and not so obvious consequences recognized. The practice of reflecting was systemically imbedded in our dialogues.

MD was challenged to question and stretch beyond that which he had previously believed possible and he did. As false truths decomposed, MD began to reach into his own depth and new world of information to draw conclusions that required contemplation. As MD connected to himself, the superficial discomfort around anyone else shed like an old coat of fur from a molting animal as did his need to revert under pressure to command and control tactics. At the same time, he had prepared himself to access alternative responses and behaviors. He was able to connect with his own deeper motivation and in that process found a resource from which to influence others.

There was a gap between that which MD believed the company leadership model to actually be and that which the corporation reiterated. Through dialogue, assessing, challenging and supporting MD, he broadened his understanding of the operating context within the company, the strategic aspirations of the company and the company's context within the community. He identified resources at the chief officer and board level to support this new found understanding.

Issues of sustainability (economic, environmental and social) were beginning to drive company priorities to maximize related business opportunity ahead of the regulation curve. MD's nascent awareness on this issue, his own vulnerability and that of the collective brought added value to the leadership team and its grasp on capturing economic value.

He also achieved deeper insight on the diverse stakeholder community of the corporation and how to monetize it. His dexterity and response time gained alacrity. He moved from being burdened by specific challenges to being motivated by the bigger picture. MD was firmly engaged in a major transformation by the time to complete the coaching arrived. He had achieved those benchmarks identified in the one year time frame. When coaching succeeds the process continues long after the coach is gone, led by the executive. In this case, the results were that within the following nine months: MD had taken on the new role; he was not only prepared for the strategic responsibilities but also brought to them a high degree of Innovation Capital with which to impact the bottom line. 

Case Study 2: Team Coaching

Team Coaching for Team Building and Innovation Capital Case Study(12):


Turning now to team coaching, in this team coaching case study the mix of methodologies engaged was more heavily weighted towards the Solutions-Focused(13) team coaching format and techniques.

The senior leadership Team of a business channel in a multi national conglomerate decided on team coaching as an approach to addressing their challenges. The CEO and nine direct reports had been fractioned into two warring camps in the midst of an organizational restructuring. The CEO's objective was to bond the members of the team together and develop their Innovation Capital so as to facilitate their collaboration as a unified team in leading the organization forward.


Pre-off site discovery with each of the participants revealed only a partial picture of the intensity of the rifts. All had expressed verbally their willingness to do the work on the off site and to do their part to support change. So it came as a surprise, when I arrived at the airport to travel to the location with the first group that some had cancelled last minute their planned departure. They had postponed their departure until the next morning; this meant that the off site would not begin as scheduled. The two groups did not even want to travel to the off site location together! The camp lines were clearly drawn between those that departed in the evening and those that departed in the morning. Tension and resistance were running high. The CEO had a severe flu and was quite concerned about these last minute incidents.

The program finally got going at noon on day one. After lunch we started with a process of "PREPARING THE GROUND"(14); that fostered a review and agreement on rules of engagement and guidelines for the sessions. The team members recognized that which had brought them to this stage and verbally acknowledged their responsibility for any forthcoming change. Success factors that usually are present when change actually happens were explored. Exchanges were brief and anything but relaxed. There was a sense in the group that all were going through the paces with out any confidence that the desired outcome would come from it.

I asked "What rules of participation should we follow so that everyone can participate comfortably?"(15) There were long pauses between responses and I kept repeating the question in various formulations. As one followed another they inched forward. The participants offered the following range of responses.

Up to this point the words were spoken with tempered engagement. Everyone started listening more attentively when one person said "Bother to say something". The comments that followed indicated that a willingness to listen to the opposing side was emerging. Nevertheless, the words were still better than the feeling in the room.

I moved on to ask "How will you know that we are discussing things factually and not emotionally?"(16) The answers came more quickly now and they began to laugh at themselves - a bit.

The participants were beginning to engage with one another. However the weight had not lifted. We moved on continuing to build the platform. This included identifying "Expectations and Goals, Hot topics & Highlights" (17)

I asked, "What would the benefits be of having better collaboration?"(18)

After several comments, I asked "What would be the benefit of having better team work?" These responses followed.

Rephrasing the question just slightly, I asked, "What would the benefit be for us as team members?"(19) The responses expanded into the following.

We continued to work on building the platform. Skepticism abounded.

Then I asked, "How will the team members know that they have reached their goal?"(20) Followed by, "Suppose it was already happening, how would you know?"(21)

'Hanging in' on building, we pressed forward. There was restlessness. The kind of restlessness that one gets when one 'works out' with a personal exercise trainer, when your making yourself do it because you have to do it but you just don't like it. There was the sense of 'pull' rather than 'give.'

Then I asked, "Of what must we be mindful?"(22)

Followed by, "Are you genuinely prepared in principle to do something different?"(23) Yes, in principle they were but they claimed that they had been all along. Their belief was that they had, but it didn't happen. We've had 'off sites' and agreed. Then we go back to the office and do the 'same old, same old' as if all learned on the off site had been forgotten. Putting voice to this was important.

I asked them if they would name the project. They called out ideas and then finally voted on one. It was indeed fitting with the objective of the off site.

The depth of understanding of the challenge was expressed in this choice. This moment generated a rallying point.

After this we broke out into sub groups to "Think" about what success meant to each person individually and for each of them to write down their thoughts on post-it. Each group organized them for presentation to the whole team.

We broke for dinner and the evening entertainment. A multi media experience designed to challenge the participants' status quo with ideas and information about the world, to which they had not previously been exposed. The aforementioned were relevant to their lives and would personally affect them all.

The morning session began with some appreciative inquiry about their reactions and experiences of the evening. The conversation was kept quite superficial and linear. It appeared that not much thought had been given to how that which they learned really would impact them. It was like wading through thick mud. I concluded that I was not getting through to them as people. Everyone still had on his or her masks.

We took a break and when we reassembled I asked "what inspires you? What really personally inspires you? Would anyone of you be willing to candidly share with us what it is for you?"

Everyone was quite surprised by the question. While some began to think about it and genuinely reflect, others just waited. It appeared that some may be wondering where the question was going and what on earth it had to do with the team and the business. We spent a good piece of time in silence until one brave soul spoke.

He said, "giving as much as I've got and more".

The shift in attention was palpable. Suddenly it seemed that each person was drawn into the present moment, fully there. The members of the team were genuinely meeting this person for the very first time. This person's generosity of heart and the humility with which he spoke was moving. Clearly one person had respect for, trust in and had made a commitment to the off site. He took the leap that shifted everyone in the group. Here are the comments that followed from other participants.

Many of these human beings genuinely embodied the most fundamental qualification of leadership. It was clear that this CEO had chosen an outstanding team. The majority of them spoke at least once, some more and as they did, they all came out to meet – really meet each other - for the first time.

We had moved away from discussion and entered into a dialogue.

The word dialogue comes from the ancient Greek word, dialogus,(24) which literally means flow of meaning. To discuss means to investigate by reasoning or argument(25). And comes from the Latin word, discussus and the French word, discutere, meaning to disperse. We often reveal more about ourselves than that of which we are aware through our choice of words. In most companies, executives meet for discussions and the results are fitting.

Everyone was motivated, the air was full and most all were immediately 'Present'(26), as if snapped into a heightened state of awareness by that which was unfolding. Barriers just fell away and they were indeed now beginning to do the real work of the off site. One could see the participants digesting the realization that others were indeed very different human beings than the pictures they had held of each other several minutes before.

Then the CEO asked "What does this have to do with this off site?"

I responded. "Research(27) indicates that when we lose contact with our own individual inspiration all sorts of developments emerge - from sickness, loss of connection with others and with our work, loss of the capacity to work through challenges or to have access to that which gets us through tough times. Indeed at the heart of highly tuned collaboration and innovation are the persons rooted in their own inspiration. And understanding what inspires someone else is often a tipping point at which trust can begin to grow. Collaboration is just not possible without trust."

The team had turned a corner and now their engagement was overt. Upon returning from a break, I asked if anyone believed in miracles. Again there was one brave soul who said thoughtfully, "yes, I do". As it turned out, over half the people in the group believed that miracles can and do happen. The quality and dimensionality in this team was impressive.

I asked those who didn't believe that miracles could happen, if they would be willing to suspend their dis-belief for an exercise and just let their imaginations play? There was agreement to go with it. There was now a sense of anticipation.


I continued, "Tomorrow, you go back home for a relaxing long week end. You spend time with your loved ones, play some golf or tennis, play with your kids or whatever you do to relax. It's now Tuesday morning, a good holiday has been had on Monday and you are making your way through the heavy traffic to the office. Unbeknownst to you, over the week-end a miracle happened. The miracle is that you are all perfectly aligned with each other, engaged in highly tuned collaboration and solutions to challenges are emerging. The leadership team is working seamlessly together. Remember you don't know that anything has changed."(28)

"How would you notice that this miracle had taken place? Upon entering the office, what would be different that would tell you this had happened. What would be happening over the ensuing days and weeks and months that would tell you the team was working well and the future was unfolding as perfectly as imagined?"

"How would you know it was happening?" From a thorough and reiterative process of framing and reframing this basic question, the team came forward with twenty-seven detailed observations.

  1. C calls A and says "You have a better chance of meeting your revenue target because other members (key linkages) of the leadership team are supporting you: M with certain customers, T with ideas re xyz, P with an idea for country specific potentials AND N's contact in another country is beginning to move forward."

  2. Each and every team member calls P and requests to have a lunch.

  3. At meetings everyone is keeping to the point, listening to (hearing) each other, focusing on solutions, have happy faces and are energized. There is a spirit of "Lets do it together."

  4. Gratitude and celebration are flowing.

  5. The team is smiling, energized and positive.

  6. The Management Committee (MC) decides on 5 'things to do' for the coming year in preparation of a new budget. The team is totally behind / supports the 5 'things'. The meeting lasts one hour, consensus is arrived at, there are no doubters. All team members are dedicated to achieving the 5 'things'.

  7. After the meeting, the team is READY TO GO, 'CHARGED'.

  8. The MC members are out playing golf with customers, while the department team members know 'what to do' and are 'getting things done'.

  9. MC members have access to their collective knowledge.

  10. T gets his team together, tells them of the new focus and much is achieved.

  11. Board intelligence is expanded from linear thinking to wisdom = openness & respect.

  12. MC influences the board to have confidence in the executive team & board members think of benefits to the company, not just to their own respective interests.

  13. The executive leadership team maintains confidence in navigating the board; no matter what the board's interim reaction is.

  14. 'Down lines' notice all these developments.

  15. The MC has more time and spends less time on talk about 'team building'.

  16. Better service is delivered and the customers NOTICE.

  17. Better products are developed with faster time to market.

  18. A specified product in development is 'already going' and has delivered X Billion worth of business.

  19. More customers have joined the company services directly because of superior service to the competitors. Company value proposition and pricing are better.

  20. The next board meeting the board notices the results and asks, "How did you do that?"

  21. MC develops resilience to move through disappointments; resilience, regardless of barriers.

  22. Leadership team has innovative responses to challenges. "There is always a way" attitude.

  23. Leadership team recognizes the viral impact of positive responses and the individual impact on positive response and visa versa.

    Six months down the road:

  24. Industry reputation has been gained.

  25. Company organizational structure and executive roles are clear. A comfortable transition has been achieved.

  26. Mental telepathy abounds in meetings.

  27. Management Committee AGENDA and Key Focus
    Time for new items
    Quality consciousness re content
    * HR/ Retentions
    * Risk and controls
    * Transit
    Finance/ score card review (third week of every month)
    * specified subsidiary
    - Branding and marketing
    - Operational efficiency
    * specified products and services.
    * Tech refresh
    - specified product
    - specified service
    * Regulatory body audit
    - New Business
    - Distributor updates
    * Makes board "sit up".

We broke for a well deserved late lunch and I was encouraged to see that the heads of the two warring camps actually sat next to each other and were engaged in a one-on-one dialogue!

When we returned, I asked each team member where he or she thought the team was on a scale of one to ten(29). Ten being the team that was already behaving as it would in the perfect future described before lunch. And one was obviously the opposite extreme. The team members lined themselves up in clusters. A group at 4/5 another at 6 and another at 7/8. One participant observed that she thought what accounted for the difference was the length of time the team members had been with the company. Those at 7/8 were all the most recent team members to join the team. Other aspects of the different perceptions were explored and time was spent in reflection. The team observed where they could see glimpses and aspects of the perfect future already unfolding. They identified and explored resources available to them which could accelerate their progress. Each team member shared an affirming observation that he/she had had about another member of the team.(30)


Now it came time to tie all of the previous work to specific steps and actions. The team mapped these out to assure follow through and their ability to track their own progress.

The dialogue was very lively, multiple perspectives were heard, emotions rose and fell and compromises were made. A good example can be found in the different views on the weekly team lunch. One might think at first that this should be really simple, but there were different cultures to honor. One person absolutely could not tolerate heavy work topics while eating lunch. And some others wanted to work straight through. They needed to honor the diversity among them, which was in this group a particularly rich resource. Finally, it was concluded that forty-five minutes would be spent in dining table conversation (i.e.: "what's going on?") and seventy-five minutes on a corporate work meeting.

We broke for dinner at which all the team members enjoyed their newly found colleagues. This was one of those experiences that started with great difficulty and ended with enthusiasm flowing.

The two day two evening process succeeded in challenging the team members comfort level, previously unrecognized assumptions. This brought them out of their heads and into the present, from which they actually related, experienced and communicated instead of posturing and 'downloading' their positions on each other.

The most challenging processes were describing - very specifically - highly tuned collaboration. Most of what we define is expressed in that which it is not and in the problem. The negative tendency is as deeply pervasive in Asia as it is in the western hemisphere. It takes serious discipline and rigor to move through the opposing direction to phrase one's thoughts in the solution instead of the problem.

In summary, background, foundational content on visual cognition(31), listening and speaking, complexity and multi media presentations to shift perspectives were introduced.

The coaching process, dialogues and other customized learning activities explored multiple communication dynamics and provided self, community and team awareness raising experiences. All was tied directly to the business. Specific actions for implementation were identified.

They traveled a long road in two days and made a commitment for a six month follow up session to take account and progress the project.

Six months down the road, the team's detailed descriptions of steps and actions were paying off. They had been successful in their discipline of tracking their progress to their benchmarked agenda. They were succeeding in seventy-five percent of that which they had set out to do; the financial results reflected this. The team had themselves gained from their experiences a first hand and accurate understanding of the meaning of Innovation Capital and the benefits that flowed from such a collaborative process. In the follow up session, after acknowledging their accomplishments and the continuously evolving nature of the undertaking, the team focused its energy on identifying that which would support them to deliver the remaining twenty-five percent. They then set some new goals, steps and actions to even more finely tune their collaboration and closed with commitments to bring the company's Innovation Capital to new heights. 

Understanding Innovation Capital

Turning back to the concept of Innovation Capital, there is an inherent duality in that it addresses not only an individual executive's ability to grow / stretch (personal innovation being key to all human development), but also the collective ability of executives to bring forward innovation (process, technological, scientific) born of collaboration.

Innovation Capital thrives on a team's ability to

  • hold the tension between opposite views and good-naturedly embrace diversity (which is its fuel) in contrast to tolerating it

  • be conscious of individual and collective strengths and weaknesses, to collectively maximize capability.


Essential to Innovation Capital is highly tuned collaboration. This requires persons who bring Presence(32) to interactions and are genuinely comfortable with their 'Selves', which generates a resonance between them, putting them 'in the flow' instead of fighting against it, in other words in 'tune'.

Masks don't collaborate, human beings do. What do I mean by this?

The distinction that Carl G. Jung, Founder of the School of Analytic Psychology, made between the 'Persona' and the 'Self'(33) will be helpful here. If we watch a young healthy baby, we see a being just 'being' his/her self. As the baby grows and is 'socialized', the child develops a mask / a 'Persona' (in Jungian terminology) that pleases the family and surrounding culture. Thus the human being has been socialized, learns how to do what is expected and rewarded, etc. Yet in that process in most cultures, the connection to the organic, genuine internal being with its innate connectivity to the totality, the whole system, which includes both the conscious and the unconscious, is lost and or disconnected.(34)


In this process one's Self is even further shut off in a silo, indeed just like a corporate silo, but within one's own being. (Alas, corporate silos are the collective mirroring in organizations of the unconscious individual as it relates to him/her self.) Usually a person does not recognize what has happened, so identified is he/she with that which he/she has been programmed to become. Essentially, the person has - over time - distanced him/herself from his/her own self in seeking the mask, which he/she chooses. For some the reconnection emerges through the natural process of maturing self awareness. For most the reconnection requires pro-active attention to self awareness.

Why does it matter?

This can become a significant obstacle as companies seek to move into more advanced stages of building economic value such as through highly tuned collaboration. The aforementioned requires a wider awareness of not only an individual executive's self but also the collective. This shift of consciousness / perspective and expanded awareness can be catalyzed via a quality coaching process and is a major step in generating genuine collaboration. Indeed engendering a shift in consciousness / perspective is core to the coaching process. 

How will Innovation Capital help your Organization?

What are some of the other key aspects of Innovation Capital?

It is a company's Innovation Capital that enables the organization to respond to the revolutionary changes underway today from the financial crises and technology to the management of knowledge and our natural resources, the urgent imperatives of climate change. As well as tackling the knock-on effects of the aforementioned.

It is a corporation's Innovation Capital that allows it to respond to the exponent ially increasing complexity of business, thus broadening key talents' understanding of the context of the challenges.

It is a company's Innovation Capital that distinguishes executives' ability to consider and respond to escalating numbers of dissimilar stakeholders, while they deliver simultaneously un-sacrificed profitability.

Inherent in Innovation Capital are the individual and collective capacities to:

  • 'digest' and synthesize information across diverse channels

  • engage abstract thought and intuition

  • reflect and employ wisdom in decision making

  • prioritize the information necessary to carry out current and future responsibilities.


High Innovation Capital is essential to understanding and engaging the requirements of sustainable economic value creation and capture.

Innovation Capital® can be and needs to be developed. 

End Notes

  1. Innovation Capital® is a trademark of SYNOVATIONS® Pte. Ltd.

  2. Merriam-Webster, Webster's Ninth Collegiate Dictionary (Merriam-Webster Inc., Publishers, Springfield, MA, 1983) USA

  3. Ibid

  4. The two revenue generators on the balance sheet are sales and innovation; all other items generate only expenses.

  5. The identities have been changed to protect the privacy of the company and individuals actually referenced in this study.


  7. Mark Mckergow and Paul Z. Jackson, The Solution Focus (Nicholas Brealey Intl., 2002,2007), Daniel Meier The Solution Circle (Solutions Books, United Kingdom 2005)


  9. Reprinted with the permission of the Society for Organizational Learning, Cambridge, MA.

  10. Interview with C. Otto Scharmer Ph.D., senior lecturer at the MIT Sloan School of management and cofounder of the Society for Organizational Learning. Peter Senge, C. Otto Scharmer, Joseph Jaworski, and Mary Sue Flowers Presence (Nicholas Braeley Publishing UK 2005) p.180

  11. Peter Senge, C. Otto Scharmer, Joseph Jaworski and Mary Sue Flowers Presence (Nicholas Braeley Publishing UK 2004, 2005) p.180

  12. The identities have been change to protect the privacy of the company and individuals actually referenced in this study.

  13. Mark McKergow and Paul Z. Jackson, The Solutions Focus, (Nicholas Brealey Intl., 2002,2007) Daniel Meier, Team Coaching With The Solution Circle, (Solutions Books, United Kingdom, 2005)

  14. Mark McKergow and Paul Z. Jackson, The Solutions Focus, (Nicholas Brealey Intl., 2002,2007) Pg.28

  15. Ibid

  16. Ibid

  17. Ibid

  18. Ibid

  19. Ibid

  20. Ibid

  21. Ibid

  22. Ibid

  23. Ibid

  24. Ibid. pg. 350

  25. Ibid, pg. 362

  26. Peter Senge, C. Otto Scharmer, Joseph Jaworski and Mary Sue Flowers, Presence (Nicholas Braeley Publishing UK 2005) p.13,14. "being fully conscious and aware of the present moment... ability to listen deeply... of being open beyond one's preconceptions and historical ways of making sense... A state of 'letting go' of consciously participating in a larger field for change."

  27. John Pemberton, "Commentary: on the article by Lester Breslow on the Origins and Development of The IEA", International Journal of Epidemiology, (Oxford Journals 2005),,

  28. Mark McKergow & Paul Z. Jackson, The Solutions Focus' (Nicholas Brealey Intl., 2002,2007) Pg. 3,4, 18,31-4,35,78,83-6,94-5, 138-40,147-9, 185-7

  29. Mark McKergow & Paul Z. Jackson, The Solutions Focus, (Nicholas Brealey Intl., 2002,2007), A solutions-focused practice entitled, "scaling". pg 94-95,102,130, 133-4,138-9, 141, 149, 158, 161, 170-3, 188-90

  30. Ibid. A solutions-focused practice entitled, "affirmations" pg.19,72,80-1, 138-39, 142, 144,174-5, 192-3, 195, 216

  31. "The act or process of knowing including both awareness and judgment; also: a product of this act." Merriam-Webster, Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (Merriam-Webster Inc., Publishers, Springfield, MA, 1983) USA

  32. Peter Senge, C. Otto Scharmer, Joseph Jaworski and Mary Sue Flowers, Presence (Nicholas Braeley Publishing UK 2005) p.13,14. "being fully conscious and aware of the present moment... ability to listen deeply... of being open beyond one's preconceptions and historical ways of making sense... A state of 'letting go' of consciously participating in a larger field for change."

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